貼圖、程式等,版主可任意修改或刪除,轉貼文章請多用連結,一天 (00:00-23:59) 請只開一個話題,請大家合作,謝謝。10/21/2018 06:27:42     意見庫存
 

外獨會意見交流

 

從過去五、六十年的軌跡看台灣發展經濟的核心價值

發言人:挖地雷, on Jul/22/2018    09:35:35 (IP code: X.X.179.119)
   從 1960s' 年代啟動的高雄出口加工區開始,成衣、塑膠、電子、生技,台灣的角色都是扮演美國的代工廠,經濟發展也一路欣欣向榮。

  直到 1960s' 年代開始有西進中國,幻想著用更低的生產成本換得更高的獲利。結果是被自己訓練的紅色供應鏈取而代之,甚至反向賣進台灣市場要將這些始作俑者連根拔除。

  台灣是個沒有天然資源的小島,國際上的經濟競爭力全靠勤奮工作與高品質的勞動力,現在的世代被上一個世代照顧的太好了,那種勤奮努力的精神可能只會隔代遺傳。
 

Record ID: 1532223335   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:挖地雷, on Jul/22/2018    09:38:15 (IP code: X.X.179.119)
   做美國的代工小弟,應得的利潤都能獲得。

  想用中國工廠與吃中國市場,下場就是賠了夫人又折兵。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R001   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:早安豬, on Jul/22/2018    09:39:10 (IP code: X.X.176.87)
 
怕的是沒有隔代可以遺傳了。

台灣的生育率世界倒數第一。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R002   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:致知, on Jul/22/2018    09:39:24 (IP code: X.X.192.151)
 代工就是美国资本家决定的。现在美国实体经济不是起不来了吗?任何地方的资本运作都有共同的规律,不可能改变的。  

Record ID: 1532223335R003   From: 美國

回信 發言人:鬼島太郎, on Jul/22/2018    09:42:01 (IP code: X.X.244.190)
 
鬼島先生今天正好在想這個問題,兩蔣專制時期把呆丸帶向「亞洲四小龍」之首,從老蕃癲當選總
統後,呆丸自冉了、民主了,老蕃癲十二年的黑金、俗辣扁八年貪腐、馬英九八年無能,再加上祭
央ㄨ這兩年的空心,整整三十年,呆丸就這樣沒落了。

其他怪東怪西都是藉口。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R004   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:早安豬, on Jul/22/2018    09:42:14 (IP code: X.X.176.87)
 
致知大師大約認為房地產也算實體經濟。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R005   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:致知, on Jul/22/2018    09:46:27 (IP code: X.X.85.128)
 盖了房子可以住,修了公路可以开车,建了大桥可以过江渡海。

这总是常识吧?
 

Record ID: 1532223335R006   From: 美國

回信 發言人:沈黑朝, on Jul/22/2018    09:49:09 (IP code: X.X.94.223)
 盖了房子可以住,修了公路可以开车,建了大桥可以过江渡海。

这总是常识吧?

=======================================
房子、公路、大橋不能是豆腐渣,才是常識!
 

Record ID: 1532223335R007   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:致知, on Jul/22/2018    09:55:24 (IP code: X.X.31.58)
 哈哈,你记性真好。不过,是选择性记忆。  

Record ID: 1532223335R008   From: 美國

回信 發言人:早安豬, on Jul/22/2018    09:55:40 (IP code: X.X.176.87)
 
能不能住?

有請致知大師開示。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R009   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:挖地雷, on Jul/22/2018    09:57:00 (IP code: X.X.179.119)
   台灣經濟發展的另一個重大利空就是資源分配,政府扶持的大企業吃掉了絕大多數的利益,以及鐵飯碗系統的膨漲速度比經濟成長還快。 

Record ID: 1532223335R010   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:早安豬, on Jul/22/2018    09:59:26 (IP code: X.X.176.87)
 
這個能不能住?

有請致知大師開示。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R011   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:鬼島太郎, on Jul/22/2018    10:01:18 (IP code: X.X.244.190)
 
呆丸一旦有了民主,可以透過選舉奪取政權,政權保衛戰就成了第一要務,國家前途變得沒有繼續執政重要,藍綠兩黨
都一樣,只是民進詐騙黨因為好不容易取得政權,在朝當官,高官厚祿、吃香喝辣,每天化國菜、紅酒,對保衛政權做
得十分惡形惡狀。

明朝的覆滅粉大程度亡在黨爭。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R012   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:挖地雷, on Jul/22/2018    10:26:54 (IP code: X.X.179.119)
   啊,鬼島太郎主張要像中國那樣把總統任期改成無限制! 

Record ID: 1532223335R013   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:挖地雷, on Jul/22/2018    10:32:24 (IP code: X.X.179.119)
 > 鬼島太郎主張要像中國那樣把總統任期改成無限制

  好像還應該到慈湖和頭寮去燒燒符咒,看蔣介石和蔣經國投胎轉世到誰身上。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R014   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:鬼島太郎, on Jul/22/2018    10:32:53 (IP code: X.X.244.190)
 >>>啊,鬼島太郎主張要像中國那樣把總統任期改成無限制!

誰當總統對一般小老百姓有差嗎?能讓老百姓過上好日子才重要吧!印度、南非、現在連呆丸都成了民主的負面樣版。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R015   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:鬼島太郎, on Jul/22/2018    10:43:33 (IP code: X.X.244.190)
 
外蒙跟內蒙就是粉好的對照。

外蒙有民主、有自冉、可以透過選舉選總統,三百多萬人空有廣大的領土、豐富的資源,可是缺錢
、缺人才、政府沒效率,幾乎瀕臨破產。

內蒙的國民所得是外蒙的四倍,外蒙經過長期的俄羅斯統治,文字已經斯拉夫化,內蒙教導蒙民學
習蒙文,不讓蒙古文化消失。
 

Record ID: 1532223335R016   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:鬼島太郎, on Jul/22/2018    10:45:31 (IP code: X.X.244.190)
 
內蒙在萬惡專制極權的中共統治下,比起有自冉民主的外蒙人民生活強多了!
 

Record ID: 1532223335R017   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:支鳥太冷, on Jul/22/2018    11:08:19 (IP code: X.X.123.212)
 內蒙是草原,外蒙幾乎都是沙漠,經濟條件根本不對等 

Record ID: 1532223335R018   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:支鳥太冷, on Jul/22/2018    11:12:02 (IP code: X.X.123.212)
 內蒙是靠支那觀光輸血最好的例子,因此內蒙脫離不了支那 

Record ID: 1532223335R019   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:633, on Jul/22/2018    11:15:03 (IP code: X.X.90.163)
 金融經濟學字典
自由:
聖書的猶太語用語是d’r’r (deror), 、與巴比倫統治者、為了取消人口中個人及農業債務、解放奴隷及復元市民被行使抵當權的債權者沒收或遭難條件下被販賣的自給自足的土地、所使用的"原點復歸"同語原
Liberty:
The biblical Hebrew term was d’r’r (deror), cognate to Babylonian andurarum used by rulers to annul the population’s personal and agrarian debts, liberate bond-servants and restore self-support lands to citizens who had forfeited them to foreclosing creditors or sold them under distress conditions

自由在今日的世界暗示捕食者大規模搾取經濟的自由、對照啟蒙時代從不勞所得者釋放的自由。一自由市場被言之為一政府規制被解体、從消費者之公的保護"釋放"
Liberty in today’s world has come to connote freedom for predators to exploit the economy at large, in contrast to the Enlightenment’s idea of freedom from the rentiers. A free market is said to be one in which government regulation is dismantled, “free” of public protection of consumers.

貸借:
古典經濟學者定義家賃為一前受収益、一不反映對應的勞動者支出、既價值的唯一之源、對資產的請求。但、在我等脫工業社會進化至一"服務經濟"的場合、國民所得及製品利潤以製品 – 服務的一產出量 – 計算利息及家賃
Rent:
Classical economists defined rent as unearned income, a property claim that did not reflect a corresponding expenditure of labor, which was the sole source of value. But as our postindustrial society has evolved into a “service economy,” the national income and product accounts count interest and rent as a product – an output of services.

描繪債務為一財富、今日的二重思考、呼喚為了住宅購入者"富之創造"更高的接触價格。經濟向一貸借及高利貸体制的墮落被歡迎為一向後工業服務社會的進展
Depicting debt as wealth, today’s doublethink calls higher access prices for homebuyers “wealth creation.” The economy’s lapse into a rent-and-usury system is welcomed as progress into a post-industrial service society.

中毒性需要:
新古典派價格理論是基於限界効用循減之假定: 一人持有越多的食物、衣服或其他的消費財、各追加單位帶來的喜樂越小。但、古代人所知的、此原則在財富、特別在金錢上、非真實。一人有越多的財富、彼的欲望越多。富有中毒性、使彼的占有者吸入一強迫的蓄積動因
Addictive demand:
Neoclassical price theory is based on the assumption of diminishing marginal utility: The more food, clothes or other consumption goods one has, the less pleasure each additional unit gives. But as the ancients knew, this principle is not true of wealth, especially of money. The more property one has, the more one wants. Wealth is addictive, sucking its possessors into a compulsive drive to accumulate

~michael-hudson.com THE INSIDER'S ECONOMIC DICTIONARY - PART A『消息通的經濟辭典 - A』

救濟:
被失敗銀行的不良債權、投資及預金引起投機家及預金者的損失之返濟。此道德的危險之效果是維持金融制御於經濟最裕福10%之手中、通過移轉損失於人口的下部90%"使彼健全"、為了使在金字塔的頂點的人受恩惠
Bailout:
Reimbursement to speculators and savers of losses incurred by bad loans, investments or deposits in banks that fail. The effect of this moral hazard is to preserve financial control in the hands of the economy’s wealthiest 10 percent, “making them whole” by shifting the loss onto the bottom 90 percent of the population in order to benefit those at the top of the pyramid

景氣循環:
19世紀經濟學的大部說明金融危機如何引起商業活動的上昇的暴落
Business cycle:
Most 19th-century economic studies explained how financial crises bring business upswings down with a crash.

[現在]的概論描繪商業進路為一自動及自己安定的、類似一著實的正弦曲線的經濟發展(既Joseph Schumpeter在彼關於景氣循環上著書描繪的)
[Current] approach depicted the course business as being automatic and self-stabilizing, much like a steady sine-like wave of economic development (which Joseph Schumpeter depicted in his book on Business Cycles).

此概論的主要欠點、是暴落往往比較上昇更急速發生、不單單是在全生產能力達成(參照S曲線)時賃金及原料價格上昇所引起、是債務成長及金利上昇率窒息利潤及減少債券、株式及不動產的價格。(參照債務收縮。)直面資產價格的下落、銀行及其他債務者保有的保在償還彼債務上失敗。此終止於一恐慌、既資產被突然清算、以償還支付期日來臨或被返濟要求的債務。債務償還吸収耗費於新的不直接投資及消費之所得、使雇用及生產下落
The major shortcoming of this approach is that crashes occur more rapidly than upswings, and are brought about not simply by rising wages and raw-materials prices as full-capacity operations are reached (see S-Curve), but by the growth of debt and rising interest charges stifling profits and reducing the prices of bonds, stocks and real estate. (See Debt Deflation.) In the face of falling asset prices, the collateral held by banks and other debtors fails to cover their liabilities. This ends in a panic as assets are abruptly liquidated to pay debts falling due or called in. Debt repayment absorbs the income hitherto spent on new direct investment and consumption, so employment and production fall off.

~michael-hudson.com B IS FOR BAILOUT『B、救濟』

資本逃避:
國際的金融資本及地元寡頭政治搾取國內資本之後、安全的向海外、向米國、英國、或中間的租稅避難地、移動之結果。露國在1990年代年平均失去250億元、在彼肥私腹的腐敗高官向海外移轉自分的金錢時、伴著一勞動力向他國的移民。人口激減通常在經濟縮小時伴著資本逃避
Capital flight:
The effect of global finance capital and local oligarchies stripping domestic capital to move it safely offshore, to the United States, Britain or intermediate tax havens. Russia lost an average $25 billion annually during the 1990s as its kleptocrats moved their money abroad, accompanied by an emigration of labor. Depopulation typically accompanies capital flight as the economy shrinks.

中央銀行:
始於英國銀行、上限於米國的連邦準備銀行、一半公共(當初私有的)被商業銀行管理的機關、為了提供充分的流動資產以"回避金融破綻"、既可能成為一婉曲表現、堤供充分的信用貸以維持膨張的金融泡立於一解救債務者債務的不履行的利率、故、回避不動產及株式市場的融資惡化及對商業銀行的支付能力之脅迫
Central bank:
Starting with the Bank of England, capped by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, a semipublic (although initially privately owned) institution administered by the commercial banks to provide sufficient liquidity to “avoid financial collapse,” which may become a euphemism for providing enough credit to keep inflating financial bubbles at a rate that will save debtors from defaulting and hence avoiding real-estate and stock-market loans from going bad and threatening the solvency of commercial banks.

芝加哥學派:
彼教義的真髓是政府全無積極的役割、是一自重的負。始於John D. Rockefeller、此經濟學者可觀的資金來源被一追求以向經濟的殘存部分課稅交換財產、獨占力及財務上的税負、及給予金融、保險及不動產(FIRE)部門在無規制下要求家賃及利息之自由治世的不勞所得者提供。故、婉曲表現於"自由市場學派"
Chicago School:
The essence of their ideology is that government has no positive role, being only a deadweight burden. Starting with John D. Rockefeller, substantial funding for these economists came from rentiers seeking to replace the tax burden on property, monopoly power and finance with a tax shift onto the rest of the economy and give free reign for the financial, insurance and real estate (FIRE) sector to charge rent and interest free of regulation. Hence the euphemism “free-market school.”

選擇:
獨占者及其他公的規制之反對者尋求制限的、因為制限的選擇使不勞所得可能化。最成功的獨占販賣基本的製品或服務、給予他們一管理價格的能力(例: 保險、保健醫療、石油、及民營獨占)。概念是各個人選擇彼自分經濟的運命、以"自由的選擇"之婉曲表現引出對金融及財產侵害之公共的監視
Choice:
What monopolists and other opponents of public regulation seek to limit, because limiting choice is what makes rent-seeking possible. The most successful monopolies sell essential products or services, giving them an ability to administer prices (e.g. for insurance, health care, oil and privatized monopolies). The idea that everyone chooses their own economic fate by being left “free to choose” is a euphemism for withdrawing public oversight of financial and property abuses.

~michael-hudson.com C IS FOR CAMOUFLAGE『C 、偽装』

債務緊縮:
一為了支付債權者生產者及消費者之間循環之流的轉換。以此方法獲得的流用收益被送往更多融資、課賦更高的債務返濟費用使債務緊縮更惡化。債務緊縮及資產價格的膨張通常有一共生的金融關係、在債權者利用彼的債務返濟的領收書以行一有更膨張化資產價格的傾向之新規融資
Debt deflation:
A diversion of the circular flow of spending between producers and consumers to pay creditors. Revenue diverted in this way is channeled into yet more lending, imposing yet higher debt-servicing charges which aggravate the debt deflation. Debt deflation and asset-price inflation usually go together in a symbiotic financial relationship as creditors use their receipt of debt service to make new loans that tend to further inflate asset prices.

債權者的奴隸: 爲了借金返濟
Ambrose Bierce觀測 : "債務是奴隸監督的鎖及鞭之一獨創的代替品"
Debt peonage:
Ambrose Bierce observed: “Debt is an ingenious substitute for the chain and whip of the slave driver.”

西洋的衰退:
此最初在、最終止於除去彼的資本及減少經濟的活動至一自給地元的暗黑時代(参照封建主義)、的債務負擔下羅馬帝國的崩壞時發生。作為一脫工業經濟的債務緊縮及資產除去之結果、有今日再發的恐怖
Decline of the West:
This decline first occurred with the collapse of the Roman Empire under the debt burden that ended up stripping its capital and reducing economic life to the Dark Ages of local self-sufficiency (see feudalism). It threatens to recur today as a result of the postindustrial economy’s debt deflation and asset stripping.

民主:
依Aristotle、政治的舞台中、寡頭政治之前兆。此用語今適用於任何支持特區合意的親米政權、勿論政治特色、但往往被一被保護國的寡頭政治管理、通常使用自由選擇及自己決定的宣傳文句
Democracy:
The political stage preceding oligarchy, according to Aristotle. It is now a term applied to any pro-American regime that supports the Washington Consensus, regardless of its political stripe but typically run by a client oligarchy, often using the slogans of free choice and self-determination

規制緩和:
獨占禁止規則及安全對策之解体、移轉企劃往被財務管理者主要經營的企業部門、為了自分的利益、非為了通常被描繪為長期的成長及新的投資之最大化。
Deregulation:
A dismantling of anti-monopoly rules and safeguards so as to shift planning into the corporate sector run primarily by its financial managers for their benefit, not to maximize long-term growth and new investment as is so often portrayed.

惡魔:
一通常在不注目中最善運作的特別利益團体。詩人Baudelaire指摘、"惡魔、在說得眾人彼的不存在之點大勝"。金融財富常被稱呼為"隱藏的財富"、對照以土地財產之形"透明的"財富。以不見的必然不被課稅或規制的原則運營、不動產的利益已妨害政府收集及公開土地值統計的嘗試
Devil:
A special interest that usually works best unseen. As the poet Baudelaire noted, “The devil wins at the point he convinces people that he doesn’t exist.” Financial wealth long was called “invisible wealth,” in contrast to “visible” wealth in the form of landed property. Operating on the principle that what is not seen will not be taxed or regulated, real estate interests have blocked government attempts to collect and publish statistics on property values.

~michael-hudson.com D IS FOR DEBT『D、債務』

擬制的經費:
勞動者及資本以外的費用、價格中一大要因、特別在被規制的獨占事業、例如19世紀米國的鐵道。最惡名的費用是發行給金融及政治的通內情者的利息(被視為一商業的費用、非一活用自分的投資事業之商業決定)、選擇賣買權、債劵、及管理及投資銀行家課的管理及引受的料金
Fictitious costs:
Costs over and above labor and capital that are factored into pricing, especially of regulated monopolies such as railroads in 19th-century America. The most notorious costs are interest charges (which are treated as a cost of doing business rather than as a business decision to leverage one’s own investment), stock options and bonds issued to financial and political insiders, as well as the management and underwriting fees charged by money managers and investment bankers.

受託者責任:
金錢管理者往往視彼的顧客如同辯護士視彼的: "在不正式的犯法之前提下、如何從顧客榨取金錢?" 回答通常依存於代理人有多少、及金錢管理者的要求的委託費有多少
Fiduciary responsibility:
Money managers look at their clients in much the way that a lawyer does: “How much can I make off this person without formally breaking the law?” The answer usually depends on how much the client has, and how high a commission the money manager can make.

金融資本主義:
一Bruno Hilferding的造語、意味產業資本主義進化至一被大手金融機關、非工業企業、支配的体制
Finance Capitalism:
A term coined by Bruno Hilferding to signify the evolution of industrial capitalism into a system dominated by large financial institutions rather than industrial firms.

虛弱度:
金融市場成為脆弱、在債務返濟的數目在促複利率上膨張至一超越彼支付能力之點。此用語是Hyman Minsky的造語、說明金融市場有變身為一投資詐欺的傾向、一信用貸循環的段階、既債務者從債權者借入以支付期日到來的利息。結果是追加支付期日到來的利息於貸借勘定。此是中南米諸國支付彼的對外債務的方法、一直至此体制1982年墨西哥破產的破綻
Fragility:
Financial markets become fragile as the volume of debt service expands at compound interest to a point where it exceeds the ability to pay. The term was coined by Hyman Minsky, who explained that financial markets tended to turn into Ponzi schemes, the stage of the credit cycle in which debtors borrowed from the creditors the interest payments falling due. The effect was to add the interest that fell due onto the debt balance. This is how Latin American countries financed their foreign debt until the system imploded in 1982 with Mexico’s insolvency.

自由市場:
被金融及有產階級支配的市況、目的是確保給自身全部可處分的所得、最終通過不採算企業的買收、使經濟無自由的選擇、除了支付金利生活者的階級
Free market:
Markets dominated by the financial and propertied classes whose objective is to secure all discretionary income for themselves, ultimately by asset stripping, leaving the economy without freedom of choice except to pay the rentier class.

~michael-hudson.com F IS FOR FIRE SECTOR『F、金融、保險及不動產部門』

通商利益:
Gains from Trade:

起因於食品余剩國及食料不足國之間的生產專門化、及高技術及低賃金生產者之間的平行分極化、的貿易依存之婉曲表現。元來被自由貿易支持者的造語、此用語現在主要被北米及西歐諸農業保護主義經濟体使用
A euphemism for trade dependency resulting from the specialization of production between food-surplus nations and food-deficit countries, and the parallel polarization between high-technology and low-wage producers. Originally coined by free-trade advocates, the term is now used primarily by the agriculturally protectionist economies of North America and Western Europe.

依Ricardo貿易理論、貿易的利益、以勞動力及輸入業者在自國生產同樣製品的關連費用之額、計量。未被考慮的是過去在農業及工業生產性的改善。故、從貿易理論化的利得獎勵受動性及強調既存的生產模樣、經濟分極、及債務依存性
Under Ricardian trade theory, the gains from trade are measured by the amount of labor and related costs to importers of producing similar products at home. Left out of account are foregone improvements in agricultural and industrial productivity. Gains-from-trade theorizing thus encourages passivity and reinforces existing production patterns, economic polarization and debt dependency.

政府:
Government:
政府之近代的、的確古代的、役目、是促進安全保障、法律下平等、經濟安定性及公平性、及提供對有害行為法的救濟、為了防止經濟分極化使市民的地位降格
The modern and indeed, ancient role of government is to promote security, equality under the law, economic stability and fairness, and to provide legal redress against injurious acts so as to prevent economic polarization from downgrading the status of citizens.

公的規制、目指通過法治維持在生產者、商人及消費者之間、在債權者及債務者之間、一公平的競技場、維持民間及公共部門之間的均勢
Public regulation aims at maintaining a level playing field via the rule of law, maintaining checks and balances between the private and public sectors, between producers, merchants and consumers, and between creditors and debtors.

~michael-hudson.com G IS FOR GROUNDRENT『G、土地賃貸』

教義:
一組假說、如此魅力的、使人只見抽象的論理、無視世界實際的運作。(參照狂氣)。
Ideology:
A set of assumptions so appealing that one looks at their abstract logic rather than at how the world actually works. (See Insanity.)

無知:
蘇格拉底說無知是惡之根源、因為誰故意犯惡。但、通過追求自分狹隘的利益、金融及財產部門破壞社會的單位、既從一進化的視點是邪惡的本質
Ignorance:
Socrates said that ignorance was the source of evil, because nobody knowingly commits evil. But by pursuing their own narrow interests, the financial and property sector destroy the social unit, which is the essence of evil as viewed from an evolutionary vantage point.

(殖民地)獨立:
帝國主義列強脫捨彼對殖民地的受託者責任、及轉向純粹詐取、不持有對應的政治或社會的責任之點。在殖民地主義下、母國持有一受託者義務以開發的方法管理殖民地。付予彼(政治的)獨性、容任往昔的帝國主義列強以食物及債務之依存性不十分開發保護國。通常的戰略是將屬國的制御轉向依賴的寡頭政治
Independence:
The point at which imperial powers shed their fiduciary responsibility to their colonies and turn purely exploitative without having any reciprocal political or social obligations. Under colonialism the mother country had a fiduciary obligation to administer colonies in a way that developed them. Granting them independence was a means of shedding this obligation, enabling the former imperial powers to under-develop client countries by making them food- and debt-dependent. The usual strategy is to turn control over to client oligarchies.

情報經濟:
金融、保險及不動產(FIRE)的「服務」經濟一頻繁婉曲表現 (一言語的根源是「卑屈」、意味奴隸之用語)。彼的經濟分析可同樣的被稱呼為一偽情報經濟。金融人民主義的策略是說得人々經濟之底90%的利益被追求支援最高上位10%的方針提供是最善。

更率直的、寄生主義的成功在於虛言。迷彩是一種虛言 – 偽裝無害、實際上是危險
Information economy:
A frequent euphemism that the FIRE “service” economy (a term whose linguistic root is “servile,” meaning slave). Its economic analysis could equally well be called a disinformation economy. The strategy of financial populism is to convince people that the economy’s bottom 90% are best served by pursuing policies that favor the top 10%.

Stated more bluntly, parasitism succeeds by lying. Camouflage is a kind of lying – pretending to be innocuous but actually being dangerous.

~michael-hudson.com I IS FOR IDEOLOGY『I、觀念形態』

特赦聖年:
猶太法(利未記25)、每50年宣言一白紙的狀態、取消個人及農業債務、放出奴僕再結合彼家族、及返還彼經濟脅迫下讓渡的土地。長期被視為一單純文筆、宗教、的理想、此政策現在已追朔於紀元前三及二千年在蘇美及巴比倫王室自然的布告
Jubilee Year:
In Judaic Law (Leviticus 25) a Clean Slate to be proclaimed every 50 years annulling personal and agrarian debts, liberating bond-servants to rejoin their families, and returning lands that had been alienated under economic duress. Long thought to have been merely a literary religious ideal, the policy has now been traced back to royal proclamations issued as a matter of course in Sumer and Babylonia in the third and second millennia BC.

信用度低(投機)債劵:
高金利債券、為了企業買収的資金調達、主要被Michael Milken在德崇證券的1980年代開發
Junk bonds:
High-interest bonds, developed in the 1980s primarily by Michael Milken at Drexel Burnham to finance corporate takeovers.

使信用度低債劵可能化的財政判決、給予債劵保有者及銀行的利子支付是非課稅的、但株式配當必須在最初的所得稅支付後支付。50%所得稅率下、此意味一企業可支付、比較彼的配當、兩倍於彼稅引前所得的利息。政府已失去一相當分的稅金、貢獻一1980年代米國公的債務之急增、高金利負擔殘存少或無可被宣稱為利益的收入
The fiscal ruling that made junk bonds possible was that interest-payments to bondholders and bankers were tax-exempt, whereas stock dividends had to be paid after first paying income taxes. At a 50% income-tax rate, this meant that companies could pay out twice as much pre-tax income as interest than they could pay as dividends. The government lost an equivalent amount of taxes, contributing to the sharp rise in U.S. public debt in the 1980s, as high interest charges left little or no revenue left to declare as profits.

偽學術:
一理論或假定關係、主張是科學性、但被一特別利益團体主催、為了使分析遠離現實 (參照 新古典派經濟學、新自由主義、通貨主義、社會市場主義)
Junk science:
A theory or postulated relationship pretending to be scientific but sponsored by a special interest group to divert analysis away from reality. (See Neoclassical Economics, Neoliberal, Monetarism, Social Market)

凱因斯(1883-1946):
反對通貨主義的教義、既市場價格及所得在債務國落下、想像此許可彼實質上支付任意水準的債務、凱因斯解釋提供返濟債務能力有一構造的限界。非難歐州的武器及賠償債務超越已上制限、凱因斯提供基於支付能力的債權處理之論理
Keynes, John Maynard (1883-1946):
Against the monetarist ideology that market prices and incomes would fall in debtor countries, supposedly enabling them to pay virtually any given level of debt, Keynes explained that there were structural limits on the ability to service debts. Accusing Europe’s arms and reparations debts of exceeding these limits, Keynes provided the logic for debt write-offs based on the ability to pay.

~michael-hudson.com J IS FOR JUBILEE, K IS FOR KLEPTOCRATS『J、特赦聖年 K、肥私腹高官』

勞動資本主義:
產業資本主義是基於利用勞動力以生產從販賣獲利益的商品。「勞動資本主義」的本質是、通過為了株式市場價格的膨張目的、給予所得的控除、可從勞動力抽出金錢
Labor capitalism:
Industrial capitalism is based on employing labor to produce goods to sell at a profit. The essence of “labor capitalism” is to extract money from labor by deducting payroll income for the purpose of inflating stock-market prices.

流動資產之換金能力、倒產整理 :
信用貸(銀行給予的擔保延長保延長債務之額)促使資產持有一市場價值、故、成為「流動資產」。重要的、「清算」之英語用語意味破壞、非生存性或適應性
Liquidity, Liquify:
Credit (the amount of debt that banks will extend against a given collateral) enables assets to have a market value and hence become “liquid.” Significantly, the English term “liquidate” means to destroy, not to make alive and flexible.

~michael-hudson.com L IS FOR LAND 『L、土地 』

馬爾薩斯 (1766-1834):
英國的經濟學者及彼的地主階級的代表者。
問題、往馬爾薩斯及彼敵未予想的方向案出。大部分的賃貸金、以借入資金購買資產的所有者之利息、被支付給抵當銀行家。此現象、促使銀行家不再反對經濟的地代、及判斷土地資產及獨占為彼最大的貸付市場
Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766-1834):
British economist and spokesman for its landlord class.
Matters have worked out in a way that neither Malthus nor his adversaries anticipated. Most rent is paid to the mortgage bankers as interest by owners who have bought property with borrowed funds. This phenomenon has led bankers to drop their opposition to economic rent, and to view landed property and monopolies as their largest loan market.

市場原理主義:
一信念、既最適的共通利益、通過一起因於追求彼自分個人收益之最大限化的市場參加者的個々決定之市場均衡、單純有可能達成。大略是英國總理大臣Margaret Thatcher的宣言、即全無所謂的社會、此政策結論是「自由市場」不應被以公益之名制定的公共法規歪曲。故、此成為金利生活者經濟之同義語
Market fundamentalism:
The belief that the optimum common interest is only achievable through a market equilibrium resulting from individual decisions by market participants seeking to maximize their own private gains. Epitomized by Margaret Thatcher’s declaration that there is no such thing as society, its policy conclusion is that “free markets” should not be distorted by public regulations enacted in the name of the common good. Hence, it has become a synonym for rentier economy

軍事支出:
在一名目上自由市場体制下、國家的安全保障傘下的軍事費是支給政府的先端技術之研究開發的補助金一主要方法。此揭示之原價加算方式斷切利潤追求即經濟效率之間的連接、通過經費的最大化、非最小化
Military spending:
Under a nominally free-market regime, military spending under a national-security umbrella is the major way for governments to subsidize high-technology research and development. The cost-plus system of billing severs the link between profit-seeking and economic efficiency, by maximizing costs rather than minimizing them.

混合經濟:
全部的經濟皆混合經濟、既公的及民間部門共存、類似DNA分子之絡合的螺旋狀。公共部門、通常主導及規制經濟、提供軍事的安全保障、法律及基礎的經濟基本的設施(特別在自然的獨占範圍內)。(參照政府)「民間」的基於個人或家族的部門有起業家的傾向、但同時有展望短期的傾向
Mixed economy:
Every economy is a mixed economy, with public and private sectors co-existing much like the intertwining spiral strands of the DNA molecule. The public sector normally guides and regulates the economy, providing military security, law and basic economic infrastructure (especially in the sphere of natural monopolies). (See Government.) The “private” individualistic or family-based sectors tend to be more entrepreneurial but also short-term in outlook.

有必要留意的、通過追求彼的權力、公的或民間部門兩方有極端化的傾向、從史大林蘇連至金融化的新自由主義政權。在民間部門集中化時、此一般的在金融部門的手中。在官僚主義一面繁茂的場合、此有自身利己及以非直接的所有權獲利之傾向
It should be noted that by seeking their own power, the public or private sectors both tend to become extreme, ranging from Stalinist Russia to financialized neoliberal regimes. When the private sector becomes centralized, it typically is in the hands of the financial sector. When the government bureaucracy becomes overgrown, it tends to work in its own self-interest and to benefit not by direct ownership

通貨主義者:
經濟學者的金錢及通貨(物々交換的商品)同一視之見解。在不考慮信用貸、負債及彼付加的諸掛下、彼連結消費者價格及通貨供給量、及主張金融的國際的收支不均衡是自動修正的。主要被芝加哥大學的Milton Friedman提攜、彼的理論基本的是David Ricardo及「銀行學派」的、如此被稱呼因為彼的觀點有利於主張有硬貨– 銀行 – 非政府、創造信用貸的銀行家
Monetarists:
Economists who view money as a thing like coinage, a commodity to be bartered. They relate consumer prices to the money supply without taking into account credit, debt and its carrying charges, and claim that financial and international payment imbalances are self-curing. Identified mainly with Milton Friedman at the University of Chicago, their theory is basically that of David Ricardo and the “banking school,” so called because their views were useful to bankers who claimed that only those with hard money – the banks – should create credit, not the government.

金錢:
全部的通貨、以任何方法、是信用。但、今日、此是政府後援或政府作成的信用、因為此定義的特徵是政府受理以此支付納稅或其他公共料金的意欲
Money:
All money is credit in one way or another. But today it is government-backed or government-created credit, as its defining characteristic is the government’s willingness to accept it in payment of taxes or other public fees

貨幣錯覺:
Irving Fisher 及其他的通貨主義者使用「貨幣錯覺」用語、參照勞動者及消費者、在不以此利得比較彼購入的商品及服務價格下、想像在賃金及給料上昇時彼自身裕福的傾向
Money Illusion:
Irving Fisher and other monetarists used the term “money illusion” to refer to the tendency of workers and consumers to imagine themselves better off when their wages or salaries rose, without comparing this gain to the prices of the goods and services they buy.

獨占:
通過制限顧客選擇代替品或合理的選擇比較低廉代替品的能力、請求一生產原價以上不正當的高價 (包含正常利潤)之能力。此權利、通常以公共法令創出、特別在公有財產中長期保持的自然獨占、既輸送及通信業界、之間
Monopoly:
The ability to charge more for a product than is warranted by its cost of production (including normal profit), by limiting the ability of customers to choose alternatives or to make rational choices that recognize less costly alternatives. Such rights usually are created by public fiat, especially for natural monopolies, such as transportation and communications, which were long retained in the public domain.

道德的危險:
通過從不良債劵或其他貯蓄失去金錢的投資者之救濟、「危險之社會化」的政府責任。影響是移轉資產及收入、從一般的市民「納稅者」至金融部門
Moral hazard:
Government liability for “socializing risk” by bailing out investors who lose money on bad loans or other savings. The effect is to shift assets and income from the public at large (“taxpayers”) to the financial sector.

~michael-hudson.com M IS FOR MARGINALISM 『M、限界主義用』

新古典派經濟學:
起源於19世紀最終四半期的學派、剝取經濟的地代=不勞所得之古典的概念。至20世紀後半、用語「新古典主義」暗示一使用類語反復的循環論法之演繹的自由貿易理論之集合、除外關於資產、負債、及金融部門的役割的議論、視既存的制度上環境為當然
Neoclassical economics:
The school that arose in the last quarter of the 19th century, stripping away the classical concept of economic rent as unearned income. By the late 20th century the term “neoclassical” had come to connote a deductive body of free-trade theory using circular reasoning by tautology, excluding discussion of property, debt and the financial sector’s role in general, taking the existing institutional environment for granted.

新自由主義:
一視公的所有及規制、比較金融業者的管理、本質的非效率的哲學。政策結論是公有財產及公營企業應民營化、及賣卻收益被利用於押返最高的富及所得層之滯納稅金。異於Adam Smith的自由主義及之後的自由貿易的經濟學者、新自由主義支持政府侵入的役割、為了、在不配慮負債的指數關數的成長超過及的確切取經濟的支付能力下、保護資產及金融富
Neoliberalism:
The philosophy that public ownership and regulation is inherently less efficient than management by financial operators. The policy conclusion is that the public domain and government enterprises should be privatized and the sales proceeds used to roll back taxes on the highest wealth and income brackets. Unlike the liberalism of Adam Smith and subsequent free-trade economists, neoliberalism endorses an intrusive role of government to protect property and financial fortunes without regard to long-term tendency for the exponential growth of debt to exceed and indeed undercut the economy' ability to pay.

諾貝爾經濟學賞:
對照於自然科學、此的假定不以現實之點評價、但單單以論理的首尾一貫性評價、類似人々對文學或空想科學小說的批判。主要授予芝加哥學派的自由市場經濟學者、此賞被利用於支援認知反政府經濟觀念論的合法性
Nobel Economics Prize:
In contrast to the natural sciences, it is not evaluated in terms of how realistic its assumptions are, but merely how logically consistent they are, much as one might criticize a work of literature or science fiction. Given mainly to free-market economists of the Chicago School, the award has helped legitimize anti-government economic ideology.

海外金融中心:
一石油企業連合的革新、創造「便宜置籍國之旗」為了回避歐米稅金。
典型的策略是委託石油的讓渡價格的水準、使本社將彼的國際收益移至稅率最低之地。在此避難所之一登錄的油槽船系列會社、從彼親會社在產油國的支店低價購入原油、次之、以一不得申告利潤之比較的高值販賣給歐米的原油精煉所
Offshore banking centers:
An innovation by the oil industry creating “flags of convenience” to avoid North American and European taxes.
The typical ploy was to assign transfer prices for oil at levels that enabled the head office to take its worldwide profits wherever tax rates were lowest. An oil-tanker affiliate registered in one of these havens would buy crude oil cheaply from its parent company’s branch in an oil-producing country, and then sell it to refineries in Europe or North America at a price so high as to leave no profit to be declared.

「所有者的社會」:
目的是指數的擴大信用貸以膨張株、債劵、及不動產的價格、要求所得者支付一年年上昇的家用及退職收入的代金。通過從定義的年益年金移轉至「確定據出制度」計畫、既危險被移至於從業員上負擔、企業收益增加 。
政治的意圖、是使從業員感觸在彼的工資被壓榨時、彼以株主及住宅所有者獲得利益。希望是人々無視人口最高層的3%~10%不相應的資產所有。
代之一所有者社會、我々發展成為一抵當債務者、企業債務者、及政府債務者的社會
“Ownership society”:
The idea is to expand credit exponentially to inflate prices for stocks, bonds and real estate, requiring a rising number of years for income earners to pay for homes and for retirement income. Corporate profits are increased by shifting away from defined benefit pensions to “defined contribution” plans at which the risk is shifted onto employees.
The political intent is to make employees feel that even though their paychecks are being squeezed, they will gain as stockholders and home owners. The hope is that people will overlook the disproportionate share of assets owned by the top 3% and 10% of the population.
Instead of an ownership society, we are evolving into a society of mortgage debtors, corporate debtors and government debtors.

~michael-hudson.com N IS FOR NEO-SERFDOM, O FOR OFFSHORE BANKING『N、新農奴制、O、海外銀行業務』

年金基金資本主義:
1950年代造的用語、反映金融資本主義榨取勞動力的新方法、既保留彼工資之一部投資於株式。早期的亂用在米國(及更惡名高的在支加哥學派援助的在智利的軍事政權)發生、既會社投資年金於彼自分的株式、不以上昇收益、以組織一資金循環流入彼的購入、增加彼的資產價格
Pension-fund capitalism: 
A term coined in the 1950s to reflect finance capitalism’s new way of exploiting labor by withholding part of its salary to invest in stocks. Early abuses in America (and most notoriously in Chile at the hands of the Pinochet junta with the aid of the Chicago Boys) occurred when companies invested the money in their own stocks, increasing equity prices not so much by raising earnings as by organizing a flow of funds into their purchase.

國防資本主義:
1960年代Seymour Melman造的用語、記述米國政府在原價加算基準上立案軍需契約書之手段。此契約條件下、供給元通過生產費的最大化、非傳統的市場競爭之最小化、獲得利益
Pentagon capitalism: 
A term coined by Seymour Melman in the 1960s to describe the U.S. Government’s practice of drawing up military procurement contracts on a cost-plus basis. Under the terms of these contracts, suppliers make profits by maximizing their production costs, not by minimizing them as in traditional market competition.

計畫經濟:
新石器時代的農業革命以來的全部經濟是計畫的。最近、在拒絕政府規制的計畫經濟之標語下、選出的代表被財務管理者替代。新進步主義者的傾向、是從不良債劵、銀行預金、或其他投資救濟預金者、同時從資產及金融部門移轉政府的出費之被設計的道德的危險之方針、作出一更大的政府
Planned economy:
 Every economy since the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution has been planned. Most recently, financial managers have replaced elected representatives, under the slogan of rejecting a planned economy under government regulation. The neoliberal tendency is to create even bigger government as a result of Moral Hazard policies designed to bail out savers from bad loans, bank deposits or other investments, while shifting the costs of government away from the property and financial sectors.

老鼠會機構:
一配置、既金融業中的初期投資者被此計畫的新加入者的金錢、非實際的收益、支付。從一從來未發見的獲利技巧浮生的過大的急速收益率之約束、投資家懸念被緩和
Ponzi scheme: 
An arrangement whereby early investors in a financial operation are paid out of money put up by new subscribers to the scheme, not out of actual profits. Investor concerns are alleviated by promises of exorbitant and rapid rates of return resulting from a hitherto undiscovered technique of making money.

脫工業化經濟:
一婉曲表現、描繪利子生活者(不勞所得)經濟為一向前進步的、超越工業化的、非一往封建制歐州的產業化前之高利貸及賃貸經濟、既軍事征服是最大的事業及債權者及債務者之間分極化的
Postindustrial economy: 
A euphemism to depict rentier economies as progressing forward, beyond industrialization, rather than a lapse back into the pre-industrial usury-and-rent economy of feudal Europe when military conquest was the major enterprise and economies polarized between creditors and debtors.

民營化:
「私人的」單語是從拉丁語privatus、意味「被制限」及privare、意味「奪去」的確「強盜」由來。
1980年以來、 Margaret Thatcher夫人及其他新進步主義者政治家支持的公有財產之民營化手段返回古代的狀態:抵當物受歸權喪失、現代公有財產的強制投賣、是被IMF強要被債務困窮的政府之融資條件、為了以信用貸交換避離公債的不履行。公共事業從公有財產引出、被主要是借入的信用貸買收。民營化的主要資產是經濟的地代、被轉換為利息以支付債權者及株主、通過提高往昔是共事業的價格
Privatization:
 The word “private” derives from Latin privatus, meaning “restricted,” and privare, “to deprive” and indeed, “to rob.”
Since 1980 the lever of privatization of the public domain sponsored by Margaret Thatcher and other neoliberal politicians has returned to what it was in antiquity: debt foreclosure, forcing sell-offs of the modern public domain by debt-strapped governments as a conditionality imposed by the IMF in exchange for credit to avoid their defaulting on public debts. Public enterprises are being pried away from the public domain and bought largely with borrowed credit. The prime assets being privatized are those obtaining economic rent, which is turned into interest to pay the creditors and stockholders by raising prices for their hitherto public services.

利潤:
大眾的使用追續新古典主義經濟學、些細化用語「利潤」成為一無視來源的收益之同義語。但、對於古典派經濟學者、此用語有一狹響的含意。此是工場、設備、及關連支出中投下資本、既還元於投入生產的勞動時間之費用、的純收益。故、利潤與利子生活者收入並置。今日、「利潤」及「所得」包含家賃(地代)所得、既被古典政治經濟學與土地或其他財產權同一視的。
Profit: 
Popular usage follows neoclassical economics in trivializing the term “profit” into a synonym for earnings regardless of their source. But for the classical economists the term had a narrower connotation. It was the net return to capital invested in plant, equipment and related outlays whose cost was reducible to the labor time that went into their production. As such, profit was juxtaposed to rentier income. Today, “profits” and “earnings” include rental income, which classical political economy identified with land or other property rights.

財產:
Bentham 指摘的、財產非一物件、是一關係、既「一人財產的對象」是一人「適切的」所有、故、以一人自己的一部、以勞動者的工具或一兵士的武器、被個人的或共同体的所有。今日、越少財產被自由地或明顯地所有。負債受返權的喪失 歷史上一直是從共同体引離私有財產的主要手段、最初通過向個人債務者課的高利貸、及最近公有財產的民營化、既在債權者強要負債的政府受入IMF付的條件的場合。軍事征服是資產民營化的第2主要手段
Property: 
As Bentham pointed out, property is not an object, it is a relationship “the object of a man’s property” a possession “proper” to a man and therefore owned personally or corporately as part of one’s self, as a workman’s tools or a soldier’s weapon.
Less and less property is owned free and clear these days. Debt foreclosure historically has been the major lever to pry private property away from the community, at first by usury charged to personal debtors, and most recently by privatization of the public domain as creditors oblige indebted governments to accept IMF conditionalities. Military conquest has been the second major lever to privatize property.
~michael-hudson.com P IS FOR PONZI 『P、投資詐欺』

向底值的競走:
一追求私利私欲共食競技的用語、既一國、通過減切賃金水準在最廉價的市場生產、非以提昇賃金及勞動生產性、競爭。影響是縮小生產者及從業員-消費者之間的循環流、導至一生活水準減少。在此狀況下、唯有更有效的運作既存的勞動力及削減醫療保險、老齡年金、及其他的社會福祉費可使生產性上昇。
Race to the bottom: 
A term for dog-eat-dog competition by which countries compete by cutting wage levels so as to produce in the cheapest market, not by raising wages and labor productivity. The effect is to shrink the circular flow between producers and employee-consumers, leading to declining living standards. Under these circumstances productivity is increased only by working the existing labor force more intensively and cutting back medical insurance, old-age pensions and other social welfare expenditures.

不動產:
當初是「國王的」財產、反映資產是被統治者的代表保持、反之、背負操縱社會向前方發展的責任。但、在資產民營化後、不動產被變換為社會全体的經濟原價、既彼的成員、在不動產投資家及投機家追求資本利得同時、有義務支付以地代之方式支付土地使用權的借地費
Real estate: 
Originally “royal” estate, reflecting the idea that property is held on behalf of the ruler, who in turn is charged with responsibility for steering society’s forward evolution. As property has become privatized, however, real estate has been turned into an economic cost for society at large, as its members are obliged to pay tolls for access to the land in the form of groundrent, while real estate investors and speculators seek capital gains.

規制:
從語義論之根意味支配。一支配者或政府設定經濟規則、作成一監察機關体制、既、原則上、使福祉及繁榮最大化。全部的經濟及社會是被一或別的形式管理。實際上、政府的規制緩和放棄規制權力、讓渡給金融及不動產部門、主要是今日世界的金融界
Regulation: 
From semantic roots meaning to rule. A ruler or government sets rules for the economy, creating a regulatory system that, in principle, is supposed to maximize welfare and prosperity. Every economy and society is regulated in one form or another. In practice, deregulation by government relinquishes the regulatory power to the financial and property sector – primarily finance in today’s world.

地代:
逐語的、一定期的支付、從佛語的年金證書由來、既一在指定利率規則歷法的基礎上支付利息的國債
Rent:
 Literally a periodic payment, from French rente, a government bond paying interest on a regular calendrical basis at a specified rate.

地代 (經濟):
收入的古典語、在必要的生產費上無相當的對應、故、不增加價格、因為無現金支付原價付加於此供給
Rent, economic:
 The classical term for income that has no counterpart in necessary costs of production, and hence does not add to price, as no out-of-pocket costs are attached to its supply.

地代(獨占):
異於經濟的地代、獨占地代增加價格。類似從東印度會社至南海商社被英國作成的王立商社之獨占、被給予公的權限強要一人為不足。在現代、此被類似微軟的技術系企業達成、通過一在世界中何百萬電腦設置的軟体之排他的獨占地代獲得。同樣的獨占地代已被組入知的及著作權資產法。今日、獨占地代及借地費是債權者追求變換為一利息及配得、及達成資本利得之主要收入流
Rent, monopoly: 
Unlike the case with economic rent, monopoly rent adds to price.
Monopolies such as the royal trading companies created by Britain from the East India Company to the South Sea Company were empowered to impose an artificial scarcity. In modern times this is done by technology companies such as Microsoft, which obtains a monopoly rent on software exclusively installed on millions of computers around the world. A similar monopoly rent has been incorporated into intellectual and copyright property law. Today, monopoly rent and groundrent are the major revenue flows that creditors seek to transform into a flow of interest and dividends, as well as to achieve capital gains.

農奴制之道:
一社會放棄或失去彼的選擇、讓渡給中央計劃者之經濟政策。第二次世界大戰之間、Frederick Hayek 著作農奴制之道以描繪全部的政府規制及立案必然的終結於集中化官僚的計畫。此書成為類似Margaret Thatcher夫人的新進步主義者解体政府當局及民營化公有財產之觀念形態的教義聖書。但、限於全部的經濟是計畫的、彼的努力殘留一政治的空白、既一被國際中作動的大型金融機關填滿的
Road to Serfdom: 
An economic policy in which society relinquishes or loses its choice to centralized planners. During World War II Frederick Hayek wrote The Road to Serfdom to depict all government regulations and planning as leading inevitably to centralized bureaucratic planning. The book became the ideological bible for subsequent neoliberals such as Margaret Thatcher to dismantle government authority and privatize the public domain. But inasmuch as every economy is planned, their efforts left a political vacuum, which has been filled by large financial institutions operating globally.

72規則:
通過72等分利率、72規則提供一概算負債、貯蓄、或價格在一所定的複利率增加二倍化的年數之迅速方法。結果、在20%率以內正確。在8%年利使金錢二倍化、72等分8。答案是9年
Rule of 72: 
The Rule of 72 provides a quick way to approximate the number of years needed for debts, savings or prices to double at a given compound rate of increase, by dividing 72 by the interest rate. The result is fairly accurate up to a rate of 20 percent. To double money at 8 percent annual interest, divide 72 by 8. The answer is 9 years.
~michael-hudson.com R IS FOR RENTIER『R、不勞所得者』

S曲線:
彼單純象徵景氣循環、既在一雇用發展、原料、及資源範圍的限度被接近、及在賃金及物價上昇、使利潤減少後、次第衰退。市場飽和時、特定製品的需要同樣次第衰退。一方、金融債權及負債有以複利手段成長的傾向之事實、意味金融力學有超過生產及消費的S曲線之傾向、創出終止上昇的商業危機
S-curve:
They also typify most business cycles, which taper off after an upswing as employment, raw-materials and resource limits are approached and wages and commodity prices rise, slowing profits. The demand for specific products likewise tapers off as markets become saturated. Meanwhile, the fact that financial claims and debts tend to grow at compound interest means that financial dynamics tend to outrun the S-curve of production and consumption, creating business crises which end the upswing.

貯蓄:
貯蓄、包含手許現金(蓄積)、不動產及甚至藝術品之直接投資、及金融債權(有價證劵及債劵)。
總貯蓄、等於一經濟体的負債及金融債權、被稱呼「間接投資」、為了從直接具体的設備及器材、研究開發之投資區別。故、貯蓄及負債有、通過利息的增加分、一齊以指數的成長之傾向
Savings:
Savings consist of cash on hand ("hoarding"), direct investment in real estate or even fine arts, and financial claims for payment (stocks and bonds).
Gross savings equal the sum of an economy's debts and financial claims, which are called "indirect investment" to distinguish them from direct tangible investment in plant and equipment, research and development. Savings and debts thus tend to grow exponentially together through the accrual of interest.

Say卿法則:
此「法則」述及被製作者向彼從業員及供給元的支付、相互耗費購買以上生產者的製品。一般的用語上、「供給引起自身需要」。在此異形的懸還的流是真實時、必然無景氣循環或不況
Say's Law:
this "law" states that payments by producers to their employees and suppliers are spent reciprocally to buy the products of these producers. In popular terms, "Supply creates its own demand." If this version of circular flow were true, there would be no business cycles or depressions.

大富豪的社會主義:
現實的社會主義、是在政府統制法人企業及金融時。今日的寡頭政治 – 協同組合主義、法西斯主義、或新封建制度 – 是裕福債權者支配政府時
Socialism for the rich:
Real socialism is when the government controls corporate business and finance. Today's oligarchy – corporatism, or fascism, or neo-feudalism – is when the wealthy creditors
control the government.

安定化計畫:
一IMF 「融資條件」之婉曲表現、以緊縮政策之形、慢性的不安定化負債國的通貨、通過增加利率及增稅、故、阻止投資及信用創造。影響、使一國依存於外國的供給元、及彼的融資及隨付條件、故一直至永遠
Stabilization Program:
Euphemism for an IMF "conditionality" in the form of an austerity program that chronically destabilizes the debtor country's currency by increasing interest rates and raising taxes so as to deter investment and credit creation. The effect is to make countries dependent on foreign suppliers and further loans and conditionalities, and so on ad infinitum.

金錢之國家理論:
1905年被獨逸金融理論家G・Friedrich Knapp 在金錢之國家理論給予名稱(1924年凱因斯力說下翻譯英語)、此理論是周知的表劵主義。此描寫政府、通過稅受理通貨(異於單單宣言此法定貨幣)、給予(通貨)金錢的價值
State Theory of Money:
Given its name by the German monetary theorist Georg Friedrich Knapp in The State Theory of Money in 1905 (translated into English in 1924 at the urging of John Maynard Keynes), the theory also is known as chartalism. It describes governments as giving value to money by accepting it in taxes (as distinct from simply declaring it legal tender).
~michael-hudson.com S IS FOR SAINT SIMON『S、儲金投資』

課稅:
政府給予貨幣價值的方法、通過受辱稅金納付或公益事業(參照國家金錢理論及表劵主義)。作業中的財政-金融原理是收稅吏放棄的收益可抵當割賦償還金額
Taxation:
The way in which a government gives value to money by accepting it in payment of taxes or for public services (see State Theory of Money and Chartalism). The basic fiscal-financial principle at work is that whatever revenue the tax collector relinquishes is available to be pledged for debt service.

政治的格言、稅是社會勝者有能從敗者榨取的抽出物、有在向何及誰課稅的問題上定政黨的境界之傾向。今日、在稅負擔移往被雇用者上之間、富及金融是非課稅、
The political maxim that taxes are what society’s victors are able to extract from the losers tends to demarcate political parties over the issue of what and whom to tax. Today, wealth and finance are being un-taxed, while the tax burden is shifted onto employees

交易費用:
管理社會儲金、包含將以上儲金投入不動產及資本金市場泡沫起來的資產-價格通貨膨張及負債通貨收縮、使資源遠離產業向金融投機的流用、的業務費用
Transactions cost:
the transactions cost of managing society’s savings includes such externalities as asset-price inflation and debt deflation resulting from steering these savings into real-estate and stock-market bubbles, diverting resources away from industry toward financial speculation.

國庫:
全國財務省的役割、是最小化政府以債務者及通貨發行者管理彼財政政策及財源(參照表劵主義及國家金錢理論)。對照的、中央銀行的役割、主要是代表債權者及作出一助商用銀行体制的財政的環境、通過將金權力從國庫移轉至彼之手
Treasury:
A national Treasury’s role is to minimize the cost to government of managing its fiscal policy and finances as debtor and as issuer of money. (See Chartalism and State Theory of Money.) By contrast, the role of central banks is mainly to represent creditors and to create a financial environment conducive to the commercial banking system, by shifting the monetary power out of the Treasury into their own hands
~michael-hudson.com T IS FOR TRICKLE-DOWN『T、通貨浸透說』

高利貸:
廣泛的在社會水準上、高利貸導向經濟及政治的分極化、故、惡於單純的零和活動。Francis Bacon在彼文章中觀察的: 「 高利貸讓渡一王國的財富至少數人手中、因為確實性的高利貸業者、對照不確實性的他人、在競合的終了、大部分的金錢落入彼的財布、及一國在財富均等分配時最繁榮。」
Usury:
On a society-wide level, usury leads to economic and political polarization, and thus is worse than merely a zero-sum activity. As Francis Bacon observed in his essay on usury: “Usury bringeth the treasure of a realm into few hands, for the usurer, being at certainties, and the other at uncertainties, in the end of the game most of the money will be in the box, and a State ever flourisheth where wealth is more equally spread.”

價值:
古典的經濟學者、使用「價值」之語、暗示固有的、技術的、或社會上必要的生產費用、及縮小以上費用於使盡勞動力的直接費、加上使用於生產的資本財、建物、及原料。此價值的勞動論、容許經濟學者使經濟的地代、利息、及其他資產所有權要求從單純的移管金除外
Value:
The classical economists used the term “value” to connote the intrinsic, technologically or socially necessary costs of production, and reduced these costs to the labor expended directly plus that embodied in the capital equipment, buildings and raw materials used up in production. This labor theory of value enabled economists to exclude economic rent, interest and other property claims as mere transfer payments,
~michael-hudson.com U-V: USURY TO VESTED INTERESTS『U-V、既得權益的高利貸』

戰爭:
經濟上、國債及通貨膨張的主要原因、及通常戰後通貨收縮的原因。政治上、戰爭被利用集中政府及行政部門的支配於少數派之手中
War:
Economically, the major cause of national debt and inflation, and often of postwar deflations. Politically, war serves as an excuse to centralize control of government in the hands of the few, and in the Executive Branch of government.

水增(架空)費用:
架空費用之一形式、最一般的、是以通內情者課賦的不生產費用之形、例、為了彼的保有者、通過「水增」株式及債卷、吸去配當及利息
Watered costs:
A form of fictitious costs, most typically in the form of non-production costs imposed by insiders, e.g. by “watering” stocks and bonds to siphon off dividends and interest to their holders.

富創造:
元來、言及社會之生產手段的追加、現在、言及株、債卷及其他對經濟具体的富及收入的金融請求權之上昇市場價格。F・Soddy、努力明確化此關係、通過造出參照金融的請求權之用語「假想富」
Wealth Creation:
Originally referring to additions to society’s means of production, it now refers to the rising market price of stocks, bonds and other financial claims on the economy’s tangible wealth and income. Frederick Soddy sought to clarify the relationship by coining the term “virtual wealth” to refer to financial claims.
~michael-hudson.com W-Z: WATERED STOCK TO ZERO-SUM『W-Z、水增(架空)資本・零和理論』
 

Record ID: 1532223335R020   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:ddt, on Jul/22/2018    11:17:15 (IP code: X.X.90.163)
 > 台灣經濟發展的另一個重大利空就是資源分配,政府扶持的大企業吃掉了絕大多數的利益,以及鐵飯碗系統的膨漲速度比經濟成長還快。

金融、保險及不動產(FIRE)的「服務」經濟一頻繁婉曲表現 (一言語的根源是「卑屈」、意味奴隸之用語)。彼的經濟分析可同樣的被稱呼為一偽情報經濟。金融人民主義的策略是說得人々經濟之底90%的利益被追求支援最高上位10%的方針提供是最善。
A frequent euphemism that the FIRE “service” economy (a term whose linguistic root is “servile,” meaning slave). Its economic analysis could equally well be called a disinformation economy. The strategy of financial populism is to convince people that the economy’s bottom 90% are best served by pursuing policies that favor the top 10%.

更率直的、寄生主義的成功在於虛言。迷彩是一種虛言 – 偽裝無害、實際上是危險
Stated more bluntly, parasitism succeeds by lying. Camouflage is a kind of lying – pretending to be innocuous but actually being dangerous.
 

Record ID: 1532223335R021   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:支鳥太冷, on Jul/22/2018    11:25:52 (IP code: X.X.123.212)
 支那是泡沫經濟,約等於台灣九零年代,當人從一無所有到房子,車子各種物質條件具備 撐起第一階段經濟成長,舉車為例,支那有十四億人,極限約60%持有率,有九億個居住單位的市場分十年成長,每年有九千萬的銷售,當達到極限後,九億個分三十年汰換,每年只有三千萬輛的銷量,這差額六千萬就是泡沫,如果分五年成長,則差額是ㄧ億五千萬,泡沫愈大,但支那退休金,公務員薪水等俱有僵固性的經濟給付卻是以九千萬個時期計算,當經濟回復正常時,給付卻不能向下調,就會構成負債或負擔很重,換言之經濟成長愈快(崛起),以後負擔愈大,經濟學家計算5%溫和成長才是正常,過多的都是泡沫

其它市場也有不一而定的泡沫性,支那人現在以百分之三十的成長在吃小龍蝦,但支那人吃得了一千億隻的小龍蝦嗎?

台灣軍公教退休金問題就是因為九零年代經濟成長過速,軍公教薪水跟著調漲,不是正常經濟成長所能負擔,就會出現問題,支那將來也遇得到
 

Record ID: 1532223335R022   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:支鳥太冷, on Jul/22/2018    11:27:03 (IP code: X.X.123.212)
 更正:舉房子為例 

Record ID: 1532223335R023   From: 台灣

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