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發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    09:58:58 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    09:59:38 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R001   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    10:01:08 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R002   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    10:01:43 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R003   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    10:02:22 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R004   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    10:02:55 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R005   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    10:06:21 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R006   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:迷圓周率, on Sep/01/2017    10:10:26 (IP code: X.X.23.4)
人生的"杯具",悲劇?!

Record ID: 1504231138R007   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:lemon, on Sep/01/2017    10:19:04 (IP code: X.X.137.167)
面對人生的"杯具"

需要這張


千杯!千杯!

Record ID: 1504231138R008   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:大腸包小腸, on Sep/01/2017    10:24:12 (IP code: X.X.96.49)
有時候默默的一個轉身 勝過千言萬語

Record ID: 1504231138R009   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:迷圓周率, on Sep/01/2017    10:29:28 (IP code: X.X.23.4)
阿牛大大,

從數學的角度,人生是從多少到多少?

Record ID: 1504231138R010   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:迷圓周率, on Sep/01/2017    11:10:16 (IP code: X.X.23.4)
unknown~0~infinitesimal~function real number(+imaginary part)~infinity~ultimate infinity~unknown

Record ID: 1504231138R011   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:temo, on Sep/01/2017    11:27:38 (IP code: X.X.199.91)
010, 應該不會從 0 開始. 呵呵.

Record ID: 1504231138R012   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:MIT®, on Sep/01/2017    11:56:36 (IP code: X.X.217.161)
010=2
101=5

Record ID: 1504231138R013   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    14:26:39 (IP code: X.X.174.65)
迷圓周率, lemon, 大腸包小腸, temo, MIT®, 諸位超級偉大的臺派智者前輩們:
下午安!
從數學的角度...我只知道 0 是加法單位元素...
而且 0 本身構成一個加法群...就像 1 本身構成一個乘法群...

Record ID: 1504231138R014   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:討海人, on Sep/01/2017    14:50:39 (IP code: X.X.48.64)

Record ID: 1504231138R015   From: 美國

回信 發言人:討海人, on Sep/01/2017    15:03:49 (IP code: X.X.48.64)

Record ID: 1504231138R016   From: 美國

回信 發言人:HUNTER轉, on Sep/01/2017    15:58:40 (IP code: X.X.19.79)
The U.S. Navy's Newest Aircraft Carrier USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78)
福特號在2007年1月16日獲海軍部長命名,但建造合約在2008年9月10日才正式簽訂。於2009年11月14日開始建造,2013年1月26日裝設艦島,並在10月3日安裝螺旋槳。2013年10月11日,福特號的船塢開始注水,下水儀式邀請了福特總統的女兒蘇珊·福特按下注水的啟動按鈕[3],福特號於2013年11月9日的擲瓶典禮亦由她執行。2017年4月8日,以自身動力首次出海試航,經多次工程延誤及超支後,於2017年7月22日服役[4]。美國總統唐納德·特朗普在諾福克海軍基地舉行的服役儀式上評論說,福特號是「美國力量和威望的象徵」,她將令美國的盟國得以安然入睡,令美國的敵人渾身顫抖[5]

Susan Ford Bales, daughter of President Gerald R. Ford, christens Gerald R. Ford.

Record ID: 1504231138R017   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:bbc, on Sep/01/2017    17:44:23 (IP code: X.X.43.102)
阿牛大師 晩安,

好久不見!(aaa)


>>從數學的角度,人生是從多少到多少?

有人説:「空手而來,空手而去」。
佛法:「萬般帶不走, 只有業隨身」。

>>人生是從多少到多少?
問自已「想從多少到多少」?

Record ID: 1504231138R018   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:drlil, on Sep/01/2017    20:50:36 (IP code: X.X.136.118)
阿牛大師好!好久不見!
很喜歡你貼的照片丨

Record ID: 1504231138R019   From: 美國

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:31:36 (IP code: X.X.174.65)
討海人, HUNTER, bbc, drlil, 諸位超級偉大的臺派智者前輩們:
晚安!
非常大大感謝您們的參觀和貼圖!!!
我一定會選最好的來貼...主觀的和客觀的...哈哈...

Record ID: 1504231138R020   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:33:17 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R021   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:34:11 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R022   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:35:04 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R023   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:35:55 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R024   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:36:50 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R025   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:37:56 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R026   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:39:04 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R027   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:40:25 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R028   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:42:37 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R029   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:45:32 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R030   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/01/2017    21:46:30 (IP code: X.X.174.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R031   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:莫那魯道, on Sep/01/2017    22:44:33 (IP code: X.X.156.222)
阿牛前輩

您跟討海大前輩一樣

有了人生體悟以後, 拍甚麼照片都好看~~

~~菸~~

Record ID: 1504231138R032   From: 美國

回信 發言人:HUNTER轉, on Sep/01/2017    23:08:20 (IP code: X.X.65.215)
http://www.businessinsider.com/tilapia-fish-skin-burn-treatment-brazil-2017-5/#second-and-third-degree-burns-are-painful-and-occasionally-deadly-depending-on-how-widespread-they-are-on-the-body-using-tissue-can-often-help-speed-up-the-healing-process-but-at-the-jos-frota-institute-doctors-were-only-able-to-use-burn-creams-and-gauze-that-had-to-be-changed-outfrequently-a-painful-process-1
吳郭魚皮對粉爆燒燙傷者有大用


Record ID: 1504231138R033   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:HUNTER轉, on Sep/01/2017    23:10:46 (IP code: X.X.65.215)

Record ID: 1504231138R034   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:HUNTER轉, on Sep/01/2017    23:25:26 (IP code: X.X.65.215)
Sekigahara, Waterloo become sister towns

関ン原町與比利時滑鐵盧Waterloo, Belgium結為姊妹市

https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20170901_11/

Record ID: 1504231138R035   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/02/2017    10:16:35 (IP code: X.X.134.65)
超級偉大的 莫那魯道 臺派智者前輩:
早安!
您誤會了啦,哈哈...
這些照片不是我拍攝的...是職業攝影家和攝影高手的傑作啦...

Record ID: 1504231138R036   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/02/2017    10:35:31 (IP code: X.X.134.65)
超級偉大的 HUNTER 臺派智者前輩:
早安!
非常大大感謝您的醫學新知!!!
関ン原町...不知怎的...讓我想到 徳川家康 和 毛利輝元 的"關⑩原ソ戰ゆ"...

Record ID: 1504231138R037   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:耳聾, on Sep/02/2017    10:58:24 (IP code: X.X.44.220)
R025

黃花風鈴離我家不遠, 我三四月時一有空就騎腳踏車去穿梭, 旁邊另一段是苦練, 紫色的花很香

Record ID: 1504231138R038   From: 美國

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/02/2017    11:25:16 (IP code: X.X.134.65)
超級偉大的 耳聾 臺派智者前輩:
午安!
非常大大感謝您的教誨!!!
花в道...漂亮得無法形容...

Record ID: 1504231138R039   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/03/2017    20:29:39 (IP code: X.X.134.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R040   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/03/2017    20:30:18 (IP code: X.X.134.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R041   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/03/2017    20:30:55 (IP code: X.X.134.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R042   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/03/2017    20:32:07 (IP code: X.X.134.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R043   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/03/2017    20:34:09 (IP code: X.X.134.65)

Record ID: 1504231138R044   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/09/2017    22:40:00 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:15:32 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

Record ID: 1504231138R046   From: 台灣

回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:16:22 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:17:33 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:18:20 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:20:27 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:21:32 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:22:22 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:23:14 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:39:30 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:40:23 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/11/2017    20:40:55 (IP code: X.X.195.180)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:18:29 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:19:14 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:21:12 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:22:23 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:23:00 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:24:00 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:24:36 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:25:08 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:26:27 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:27:34 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:28:42 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:29:15 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:30:19 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:30:54 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:31:58 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:33:19 (IP code: X.X.195.238)

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回信 發言人:阿牛歐高, on Sep/15/2017    11:42:38 (IP code: X.X.195.238)
Voyager 1 & Voyager 2 太空船的偉大成就 — Neptune 系統和 Uranus 系統
Launch
Voyager 2 launched on August 20, 1977, from Cape Canaveral, Florida aboard a Titan-Centaur rocket. On September 5, Voyager 1 launched, also from Cape Canaveral aboard a Titan-Centaur rocket.Planetary Tour Between them, Voyager 1 and 2 explored all the giant planets of our outer solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; 48 of their moons; and the unique system of rings and magnetic fields those planets possess. Closest approach to Jupiter occurred on March 5, 1979 for Voyager 1; July 9, 1979 for Voyager 2. Closest approach to Saturn occurred on November 12, 1980 for Voyager 1; August 25, 1981 for Voyager 2. Closest approach to Uranus occurred on January 24, 1986 by Voyager 2. Closest approach to Neptune occurred on August 25, 1989 by Voyager 2.Most Distant Spacecraft The Voyager spacecraft will be the third and fourth human spacecraft to fly beyond all the planets in our solar system. Pioneers 10 and 11 preceded Voyager in outstripping the gravitational attraction of the Sun but on February 17, 1998, Voyager 1 passed Pioneer 10 to become the most distant human-made object in space.The Golden Record Both Voyager spacecrafts carry a greeting to any form of life, should that be encountered. The message is carried by a phonograph record - -a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University. Dr. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds. To this they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, and spoken greetings from Earth-people in fifty-five languages.Present Status As of March 2010, Voyager 1 was at a distance of 16.9 billion kilometers (~ 113 AU) from the Sun. Voyager 2 was at a distance of 13.7 billion kilometers (~ 92 AU). Voyager 1 is escaping the solar system at a speed of about 3.6 AU per year.Voyager 2 is escaping the solar system at a speed of about 3.3 AU per year. There are currently five science investigation teams participating in the Interstellar Mission. They are: 1. Magnetic field investigation2. Low energy charged particle investigation3. Cosmic ray investigation4. Plasma Investigation (Voyager 2 only)5. Plasma wave investigation Five instruments onboard the Voyagers directly support the five science investigations. The five instruments are: 1. Magnetic field instrument (MAG)2. Low energy charged particle instrument (LECP)3. Cosmic ray instrument (CRS)4. Plasma instrument (PLS)5. Plasma wave instrument (PWS) One other instrument is collecting data but does not have official science investigation associated with it:6. Ultraviolet spectrometer subsystem (UVS), Voyager 1 only Termination ShockVoyager 1 crossed the termination shock in December 2004 at about 94 AU from the Sun while Voyager 2 crossed it in August 2007 at about 84 AU. Both spacecraft are now exploring the Heliosheath. The Heliopause While the exact location of the Heliopause is not known, it has been estimated that Voyager could reach this entry into interstellar space 10 years after crossing the Termination Shock.
**************************************************************
What is the Golden Record?
Pioneers 10 and 11, which preceded Voyager, both carried small metal plaques identifying their time and place of origin for the benefit of any other spacefarers that might find them in the distant future. With this example before them, NASA placed a more ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2-a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record-a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University, et. al. Dr. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind and thunder, birds, whales, and other animals. To this they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, and spoken greetings from Earth-people in fifty-five languages, and printed messages from President Carter and U.N. Secretary General Waldheim. Each record is encased in a protective aluminum jacket, together with a cartridge and a needle. Instructions, in symbolic language, explain the origin of the spacecraft and indicate how the record is to be played. The 115 images are encoded in analog form. The remainder of the record is in audio, designed to be played at 16-2/3 revolutions per minute. It contains the spoken greetings, beginning with Akkadian, which was spoken in Sumer about six thousand years ago, and ending with Wu, a modern Chinese dialect. Following the section on the sounds of Earth, there is an eclectic 90-minute selection of music, including both Eastern and Western classics and a variety of ethnic music. Once the Voyager spacecraft leave the solar system (by 1990, both will be beyond the orbit of Pluto), they will find themselves in empty space. It will be forty thousand years before they make a close approach to any other planetary system. As Carl Sagan has noted, "The spacecraft will be encountered and the record played only if there are advanced spacefaring civilizations in interstellar space. But the launching of this bottle into the cosmic ocean says something very hopeful about life on this planet." The definitive work about the Voyager record is "Murmurs of Earth" by Executive Director, Carl Sagan, Technical Director, Frank Drake, Creative Director, Ann Druyan, Producer, Timothy Ferris, Designer, Jon Lomberg, and Greetings Organizer, Linda Salzman. Basically, this book is the story behind the creation of the record, and includes a full list of everything on the record. "Murmurs of Earth", originally published in 1978, was reissued in 1992 by Warner News Media with a CD-ROM that replicates the Voyager record. Unfortunately, this book is now out of print, but it is worth the effort to try and find a used copy or browse through a library copy.
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Goals: Voyager 1 and 2 were designed to take advantage of a rare planetary alignment to explore the outer solar system. Voyager 1 targeted Jupiter and Saturn before continuing on to chart the far edges of our solar system.

Accomplishments: Voyager 1 was to become the second spacecraft to visit Saturn. Its mission there was to explore the planet and its rings, moons, and magnetic field in greater detail than was possible for its predecessor, Pioneer 11.

Voyager 1 met all of its goals except for the experiments planned for its photopolarimeter, which failed to operate. The spacecraft found three new moons: Prometheus and Pandora, the "shepherding" moons that keep the F ring well-defined, and Atlas which similarly shepherds the A ring. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, was found to have a thick atmosphere which hides its surface from visible-light cameras and telescopes. Spacecraft instruments showed it to be mostly nitrogen, like Earth's atmosphere, but with a surface pressure 1.6 times as high as ours.

The spacecraft also imaged the moons Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea; revealed the fine structures of Saturn's complex and beautiful ring system; and added the G ring to the list of known rings.

Just as it used Jupiter's gravity to help it reach Saturn, Voyager 1 used a gravity assist at Saturn to alter its course and increase its speed, giving it a trajectory that will ultimately take it out of the solar system.

Mission Type: Flyby
Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE-Centaur (TC-6 / Titan no. 23E-6 / Centaur D-1T)
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, USA, Launch Complex 41
NASA Center: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Spacecraft Mass: 2,080 kg (822 kg Mission Module)
Spacecraft Instruments: 1) imaging system; 2) ultraviolet spectrometer; 3) infrared spectrometer; 4) planetary radio astronomy experiment; 5) photopolarimeter; 6) magnetometers; 7) plasma particles experiment; 8) low-energy charged-particles experiment; 9) plasma waves experiment and 10) cosmic-ray telescope
Spacecraft Dimensions: Decahedral bus, 47 cm in height and 1.78 m across from flat to flat
Spacecraft Power: 3 plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs)
Maximum Power: 470 W of 30-volt DC power at launch, dropping to about 285 W at the beginning of 2008.
Antenna Diameter: 3.66 m
X-Band Data Rate: 115.2 kbits/sec at Jupiter, less at more distant locations (first spacecraft to use X-band as the primary telemetry link frequency)
Total Cost: $875 million for Voyager 1 and 2 through the end of the Neptune phase of the Voyager 2 mission. An additional $30 million was allocated for the first 2 years of the Voyager Interstellar Mission.
**************************************************************
Goals: Voyager 1 and 2 were designed to take advantage of a rare planetary alignment to explore the outer solar system. Voyager 2 targeted Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Like it's sister spacecraft, Voyager 2 also was designed to study the edge of our solar system beyond the planets.

Accomplishments: Voyager 2 is the only human-made object to have flown by Neptune. In the closest approach of its entire tour, the spacecraft passed less than 5,000 km above the planet's cloud tops. It discovered five moons, four rings, and a "Great Dark Spot" that vanished by the time the Hubble Space Telescope imaged Neptune five years later. Neptune's largest moon, Triton, was found to be the coldest known planetary body in the solar system, with a nitrogen ice "volcano" on its surface. A gravity assist at Neptune shot Voyager 2 below the plane in which the planets orbit the sun, on a course which will ultimately take the spacecraft out of our solar system.

Mission Type: Flyby
Launch Vehicle: Titan IIIE-Centaur (TC-7 / Titan no. 23E-7 / Centaur D-1T)
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, USA, Launch Complex 41
NASA Center: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Spacecraft Mass: 2,080 kg (822 kg mission module)
Spacecraft Instruments: 1) imaging system; 2) ultraviolet spectrometer; 3) infrared spectrometer; 4) planetary radio astronomy experiment; 5) photopolarimeter; 6) magnetometers; 7) plasma particles experiment; 8) low-energy charged-particles experiment; 9) plasma waves experiment and 10) cosmic-ray telescope
Spacecraft Dimensions: Decahedral bus, 47 cm in height and 1.78 m across from flat to flat
Spacecraft Power: 3 plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs)
Maximum Power: 470 W of 30-volt DC power at launch, dropping to about 287 W at the beginning of 2008, and continuing to decrease
Antenna Diameter: 3.66 m
X-Band Data Rate: 115.2 kbits/sec at Jupiter, less at more distant locations (first spacecraft to use X-band as the primary telemetry link frequency)
Total Cost: Through the end of the Neptune phase of the Voyager project, a total of $875 million had been expended for the construction, launch, and operations of both Voyager spacecraft. An additional $30 million was allocated for the first two years of VIM.
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An alignment of the outer planets that occurs only once in 176 years prompted NASA to plan a grand tour of the outer planets, consisting of dual launches to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto in 1976-77 and dual launches to Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune in 1979. The original scheme was canceled for budgetary reasons, but it was replaced by Voyager 1 and 2, which accomplished similar goals at significantly lower cost.

The two spacecraft were designed to explore Jupiter and Saturn in more detail than the two Pioneers (Pioneers 10 and 11) that preceded them. Each was equipped with slow-scan color TV to take live television images from the planets, and each also carried an extensive suite of instruments to record magnetic, atmospheric, lunar, and other data about the planets. The original design of the spacecraft was based on that of the older Mariners. Power was provided by three plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted at the end of a boom.

Voyager 1 was launched after Voyager 2, but because of a faster route, it exited the asteroid belt earlier than its twin. It began its Jovian imaging mission in April 1978 at a range of 265 million kilometers from the planet; images sent back by January the following year indicated that Jupiter's atmosphere was more turbulent than during the Pioneer flybys in 1973 and 1974.

On 10 February 1979, the spacecraft crossed into the Jovian moon system, and in early March, it had already discovered a thin (less than 30 kilometers thick) ring circling Jupiter. Flying past Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (in that order) on 5 March, Voyager 1 returned spectacular photos of their terrain, opening up a completely new world for planetary scientists. The most interesting find was on Io, where images showed a bizarre yellow, orange, and brown world with at least eight active volcanoes spewing material into space, making it one of the most (if not the most) geologically active planetary bodies in the solar system. The spacecraft also discovered two new moons, Thebe and Metis. Voyager 1's closest encounter with Jupiter was at 12:05 UT on 5 March 1979 at a range of 280,000 kilometers.

Following the Jupiter encounter, Voyager 1 completed a single course correction on 9 April 1979 in preparation for its rendezvous with Saturn. A second correction on 10 October 1979 ensured that the spacecraft would not hit Saturn's moon Titan. Its flyby of the Saturn system in November 1979 was as spectacular as its previous encounter. Voyager 1 found three new moons: Prometheus and Pandora, the shepherding moons that keep the F ring well-defined, and Atlas which similarly shepherds the A ring. It also discovered a new ring (the G ring) and revealed the intricate structure of the ring system, consisting of thousands of bands.

During its flyby, the spacecraft photographed Saturn's moons Titan, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. Based on incoming data, all the moons appeared to be largely composed of water ice. Perhaps the most interesting target was Titan, which Voyager 1 passed at 05:41 UT on 12 November at a range of 4,000 kilometers. Images showed a thick atmosphere that completely hid the surface. The spacecraft found that the moon's atmosphere was composed of 90 percent nitrogen. Pressure and temperature at the surface was 1.6 atmospheres and
-180°C, respectively.

Voyager 1's closest approach to Saturn was at 23:45 UT on 12 November 1980 at a range of 124,000 kilometers. The spacecraft found that about 7 percent of the volume of Saturn's upper atmosphere is helium (compared with 11 percent of Jupiter's atmosphere), while almost all the rest is hydrogen. Since Saturn's internal helium abundance was expected to be the same as Jupiter's and the Sun's, the lower abundance of helium in the upper atmosphere may imply that the heavier helium is slowly sinking through Saturn's hydrogen. That might explain the excess heat that Saturn radiates over energy it receives from the Sun.

Following the encounter with Saturn, Voyager 1 was on course to escape the solar system at a speed of about 3.5 AU per year in the general direction of the Sun's motion relative to nearby stars. The spacecraft's trajectory, which had been designed to send it closely past Titan and behind Saturn's rings, bent the spacecraft's path inexorably northward, 35° out of the ecliptic plane, the plane in which the planets orbit the Sun. Thus, Voyager 1 could not be sent to Uranus or Neptune.

The official goal of the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), as the dual Voyager flights have been called since 1989, is to extend NASA's exploration of the solar system beyond the neighborhood of the outer planets to the outer limits of the Sun's sphere of influence, and possibly beyond. Specific goals include collecting data on the heliopause boundary, the outer limits of the Sun's magnetic field, and the outward flow of the solar wind. Five instruments remain operational on Voyager 1 and continue to transmit data regularly back to Earth.

On 17 February 1998, Voyager 1 became the most distant human-made object in existence when it surpassed Pioneer 10's range from Earth. As of March 2010, Voyager 1 was at a distance of 16.9 billion kilometers (about 113 AU) from the Sun and traveling away at a speed of about 523.6 million km (3.5 AU) per year.
**************************************************************
An alignment of the outer planets that occurs only once in 176 years prompted NASA to plan a grand tour of the outer planets, consisting of dual launches to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto in 1976-77 and dual launches to Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune in 1979. The original scheme was canceled for budgetary reasons, but was replaced by Voyager 1 and 2, which accomplished similar goals at significantly lower cost.

The two Voyager spacecraft were designed to explore Jupiter and Saturn in greater detail than the two Pioneers (Pioneers 10 and 11) that preceded them had been able to do. Each Voyager was equipped with slow-scan color TV to take live television images from the planets, and each carried an extensive suite of instruments to record magnetic, atmospheric, lunar, and other data about the planets. The original design of the spacecraft was based on that of the older Mariners. Power was provided by three plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted at the end of a boom.

Although launched about two weeks before Voyager 1, Voyager 2 exited the asteroid belt after its twin and followed it to Jupiter and Saturn. The primary radio receiver failed on 5 April 1978, placing the mission's fate on the backup unit, which has been used ever since. A fault in this backup receiver severely limits its bandwidth, but the mission has been a major success despite this obstacle. All of the experiments on Voyager 2 have produced useful data.

Voyager 2 began transmitting images of Jupiter on 24 April 1979 for time-lapse movies of atmospheric circulation. They showed that the planet's appearance had changed in the four months since Voyager 1's visit. The Great Red Spot had become more uniform, for example.

The spacecraft relayed spectacular photos of the entire Jovian system, including its moons Amalthea, Io, Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa, all of which had also been imaged by Voyager 1, making comparisons possible. Voyager 2's closest encounter with Jupiter was at 22:29 UT on 9 July 1979 at a range of 645,000 km.

Voyager 1's discovery of active volcanoes on Io prompted a 10-hour volcano watch for Voyager 2. Though the second spacecraft approached no closer than a million kilometers to Io, it was clear that the moon's surface had changed and that six of the volcanic plumes observed earlier were still active.

Voyager 2 imaged Europa at a distance of 206,000 km, resolving the streaks seen by Voyager 1 into a collection of cracks in a thick covering of ice. No variety in elevation was observed, prompting one scientist to say that Europa was "as smooth as a billiard ball." An image of Callisto, studied in detail months later, revealed a 14th satellite, now called Adrastea. It is only 30 to 40 km in diameter and orbits close to Jupiter's rings. As Voyager 2 left Jupiter, it took an image that revealed a faint third component to the planet's rings. It is thought that the moons Amalthea and Thebe may contribute some of the material that constitutes the ring.

Following a midcourse correction two hours after its closest approach to Jupiter, Voyager 2 sped to Saturn. Its encounter with the sixth planet began on 22 August 1981, two years after leaving the Jovian system, with imaging of the moon Iapetus.

Once again, Voyager 2 repeated the photographic mission of its predecessor, although it flew 23,000 km closer to Saturn. The closest encounter was at 01:21 UT on 26 August 1981 at a range of 101,000 km. The spacecraft provided more detailed images of the ring spokes and kinks, as well as the F-ring and its shepherding moons. Voyager 2's data suggested that Saturn's A-ring was perhaps only 300 m thick. It also photographed the moons Hyperion, Enceladus, Tethys, and Phoebe.

Using the spacecraft's photopolarimeter (the instrument that had failed on Voyager 1), scientists observed a star called Delta Scorpii through Saturn's rings and measured the flickering level of light over the course of 2 hours, 20 minutes. This provided 100-m resolution, which was 10 times better than was possible with the cameras, and many more ringlets were discovered.

After Voyager 2 fulfilled its primary mission goals with its flybys of Jupiter and Saturn, mission planners set the spacecraft on a 4.5-year journey to Uranus, during which it covered 33 AU (about 5 billion km). The geometry of the Uranus encounter was designed to enable the spacecraft to use a gravity assist to help it reach Neptune. Voyager 2 had only 5.5 hours of close study during its flyby, the first (and so far, only) human-made spacecraft to visit the planet Uranus.

Long-range observations of Uranus began on 4 November 1985. At that distance, the spacecraft's radio signals took approximately 2.5 hours to reach Earth. Light conditions were 400 times less than terrestrial conditions. The closest approach took place at 17:59 UT on 24 January 1986 at a range of 71,000 km.

The spacecraft discovered 10 new moons, two new rings, and a magnetic field (stronger than that of Saturn) tilted at 55 degrees off-axis and off-center, with a magnetic tail twisted into a helix that stretches 10 million km in the direction opposite that of the sun.

Uranus, itself, displayed little detail, but evidence was found of a boiling ocean of water some 800 km below the top cloud surface. The atmosphere was found to be 85 percent hydrogen and 15 percent helium (26 percent helium by mass). Strangely, the average temperature of 60 K (-351.4 degrees Fahrenheit, -213 degrees Celsius) was found to be the same at the sun-facing south pole and at the equator. Wind speeds were as high as 724 km per hour.

Voyager 2 returned spectacular photos of Miranda, Oberon, Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, the five larger moons of Uranus. In a departure from Greek mythology, four of Uranus' moons are named for Shakespearean characters and one-Umbriel-is named for a sprite in a poem by Alexander Pope. Miranda may be the strangest of these worlds. It is believed to have fragmented at least a dozen times and reassembled in its current confused state.

Following the Uranus encounter, the spacecraft performed a single midcourse correction on 14 February 1986 to set it on a precise course to Neptune. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune capped a 7-billion-km journey when on 25 August 1989, at 03:56 UT, it flew about 4,950 km over the cloud tops of the giant planet, closer than its flybys of the three previous planets. As with Uranus, it was the first (and so far, only) human-made object to fly by the planet. Its 10 instruments were still in working order at the time.

During the encounter, the spacecraft discovered five new moons and four new rings. The planet itself was found to be more active than previously believed, with winds of 1100 km per hour. Hydrogen was found to be the most common atmospheric element, although the abundant methane gives the planet its blue appearance. Voyager data on Triton, Neptune's largest moon, revealed the coldest known planetary body in the solar system and a nitrogen ice volcano on its surface.

The spacecraft's flyby of Neptune set it on a course below the ecliptic plane that will ultimately take it out of the solar system. After Neptune, NASA formally renamed the entire project (including both Voyager spacecraft) the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM).

Approximately 56 million km past the Neptune encounter, Voyager 2's instruments were put into low-power mode to conserve energy. In November 1998, twenty-one years after launch, nonessential instruments were permanently turned off. Six instruments are still operating. Data from at least some of the instruments should be received until at least 2025. Sometime after that date, power levels onboard the spacecraft will be too low to operate even one of its instruments.

As of March 2010, Voyager 2 was about 92 AU (13.7 billion km) from the sun, increasing its distance at a speed of about 3.3 AU (about 494 million km) per year.
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Voyager 1 is speeding along at about 57,600 kph (35,790 mph) - fast enough to travel from the Earth to the Sun three and a half times in one year.

Both Voyagers carry a gold record 'greeting to the universe' containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth.

Voyager 1 is in the process of escaping the solar system at a speed of about 523.6 million km per year, or about 1.4 million km per day.

Even at this tremendous speed, Voyager 1 will take at least 14,000 years (and maybe twice that or even longer) to emerge from the Oort cloud.

A 30-cm gold-plated copper disc, together with a needle and playing instructions, is mounted on the body casing. On it are recorded natural Earth sounds, 90 min of music, 115 pictures, and greetings in 60 languages.

5 Sep 1977: Launch (12:56:01 UT)
5 Mar 1979: Jupiter Flyby
12 Nov 1980: Saturn Flyby
17 Feb 1998: Became Most Distant Human-made Object
16 Aug 2006: 100 Astronomical Units Reached
**************************************************************
Both Voyager spacecraft carry a greeting to any form of life. The message is on a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images that portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth.

One of the musical selections on the Voyager gold record is Chuck Berry's 1950s hit Johnny B. Goode.

Voyager 2 is escaping the solar system at a speed of about 3.3 A.U. (495,000,000 km) per year.

Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to visit Uranus and Neptune.

A 30-cm gold-plated copper disc, together with a needle and playing instructions, is mounted on the body casing. On it are recorded natural Earth sounds, 90 min of music, 115 pictures, and greetings in 60 languages.

It is departing our solar system in a different direction than Voyager 1.

20 Aug 1977: Launch
9 Jul 1979: Jupiter Flyby (Closest Approach)
26 Aug 1981: Saturn Flyby (Closest Approach)
24 Jan 1986: Uranus Flyby (Closest Approach)
24 Aug 1989: Neptune Flyby (Closest Approach)

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臥舉"打破"法國選手 Voisin 保持的世界紀錄 133.0kg...




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